history of bolivia


Then, in 1883, the territory of Puna de Atacama went to Argentina. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Whereas early Native American rebellions were anti-Christian, the revolts at the end of the 16th century were based in messianic Christian symbolism that was Roman Catholic and anti-Spanish.

Between 1438 and 1527 the Inca empire embarked on a mass expansion, acquiring much of what is now western Bolivia under their 9th emperor, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, whose reign lasted from 1438 to 1471. The MNR emerged victorious in the 1951 elections, but the results were called fraudulent by the opposition, and its right to the presidency was denied. In both the school’s pedagogy and its architecture, Brunet introduced to Santiago the…, …complicated by a dispute with Bolivia concerning boundaries in the Chaco. Throughout the 1960s s leveled the peasant unions against labor unrest in the mines. When there was a water rate hike, the local people took to the streets and Bechtel was forced out. One military leader, General Luis García Meza Tejada, eventually fled the country and was convicted in absentia of genocide, treason, human-rights abuses and armed insurrection, and sentenced to 30 years’ imprisonment. Thousands of years later, in the 15 century, the Incan Empire entered into Boliva. He nationalized mines, evicted the tin barons, put an end to pongaje and set up Comibol (Corporación Minera de Bolivia), the state entity in charge of mining interests. Elections in 1978, 1979, and 1980 were inconclusive and marked by fraud. The Middle Horizon (AD 500–900) was marked by the imperial expansion of the Tiahuanaco and Huari (of the Ayacucho valley of present-day Peru) cultures.


In recent years, an increasingly divisive conflict has been the Bolivian Gas War; a dispute over the exploitation of Bolivia's large natural gas reserves in the south of the country. The coup provoked a popular armed revolt by the miners, which became known as the April Revolution of 1952. There, a supporter of Túpac Amaru II, the Native American chief Tomás Catari, had led an uprising in Potosí during the early months of 1780. After heavy fighting the military was defeated and Paz Estenssoro finally took power. From the end of the Chaco War until the 1952 revolution, the emergence of contending ideologies and the demands of new groups convulsed Bolivian politics. Construction ended at Guajará-Mirim on the Brazilian bank of the Río Mamoré. Then in 1900 rubber tappers in the Acre region rebelled demanding independence. In December 2005 presidential elections, Bolivian Indian activist Evo Morales of the Movement Toward Socialism (MAS) won 54% of the vote becoming the country’s first indigenous president. In the north a rubber industry boomed.

In 1982 Congress elected Hernán Siles Zuazo, the civilian left-wing leader of the Communist-supported Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR). already dissatisfied with Spanish rule that was the last straw. Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, and Hernando de Luque led the Spanish discovery and conquest of the Inca empire. No part of this site may be reproduced without our written permission. Pachacuti Yupanqui was succeeded by his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui whose reign also increased the Incan territory and lasted from 1471 to 1493. Twelve more tumultuous years of national reform left the country bitterly divided and in 1964, a military junta led by vice-president René Barrientos overthrew President Paz Estenssoro at the outset of his third term; an event that many assert brought an end to the National Revolution and marked the beginning of nearly 20 years of military rule in Bolivia. The following discussion focuses on events in Bolivia since the time of European conquest. Later revolts in the Bolivian highlands were usually organized by the elders of the community and remained local in nature, except for the great rebellion of Túpac Amaru II.
By the early 1820s General Simón Bolívar succeeded in liberating both Venezuela and Colombia from Spanish domination. Then in 2005 left-wing Evo Morales was elected president with plans to nationalize industry. Supreme Court Judge Eduardo Rodriguez took over as interim president.

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